Wednesday, July 9, 2008

Tajuk 1: Pengenalan Emosi

1 Definition
1.1 Definisi emosi
Definisi menurut Kleinginna & Kleinginna (1981)
Emotion is a complex set of interactions among subjective and objective factors, mediated by neural hormonal systems, which can :
give rise to affective experiences such as feelings of arousal, pleasure/displeasure
generate cognitive processes such as emotionally relevant perceptual effects, appraisals, labeling processes
activate widespread physiological adjustments to the arousing conditions
lead to behavior that is often, but not always, expressive, goal directed, and adaptive

Junainah – middle of the night – strange sounds
She listened, tried to identify the sounds
She felt her heart pumping faster and faster
The ‘intruder’ suddenly ran into her room
She screamed and jumped up
It was a cat!

Affective or feeling state - fear
Cognitive processes
-labeled as ‘fear’, ‘takut’
-Identify source of fear
-Think about how to deal with it
Physiological changes
-Pounding heart
-Faster breathing

Four components of emotion
A feeling state – perasaan
Cognitive process – proses kognitif
Physiological changes – perubahan fisiologi
Associated behavior – tingkahlaku berkaitan

Emotional substrates

1.2 Emosi dan motivasi
Oleh itu, emosi lebih luas maknanya dari perasaan
Emosi juga tidak dapat dipisahkan dari motivasi (Baron & Logan, 1993)
Emosi sebagai motivasi kepada tingkahlaku & motif boleh menjadi emosional (Lang et al, 1992)

Motif pembunuhan – mendapat duit dan juga disebabkan kebencian (emosi)
Cinta akan memotivasikan seseorang untuk terlibat dalam tingkahlaku tertentu i.e. meng’sms’, menelefon, memberi hadiah dan juga mendirikan rumahtangga
Walaubagaimana pun,
Tidak semua keadaan, emosi menjadi pendorong (motivator)
Tidak semua pendorong (motivator) berasaskan kepada emosi
E.g. belajar kuat (achievement motive)
E.g. makan (hunger motive)

2 How to measure emotion?

Self-reports- verbal statement by the person of what she is feeling.
Methods: interviews, questionnaire, self-monitoring techniques (record own behavior over a period of time)
Simple and direct, but
Have problems: variability in cultural norms and cultural labeling problem

Direct observation- reliability problem
Physiological measurement-
Measurement and study of a variety of internal body states that reflect the functioning of the automatic, skeletal, and central nervous systems
Indicate a person’s level of arousal

Psychological indicators:
Heart rate, blood pressure, muscle tension
Respiration rate, brain electrical activity
Electrodermal activity
Lie detector is a liar?